Research has shown that probiotics can help in treating many types of gut-related disorders, from irritable bowel syndrome to atopic eczema. However, these studies have shown that more research needs to be done before probiotics are considered safe and effective for treating many other health conditions.
Irritable bowel syndrome
The effectiveness of probiotics in treating gut-related disorders is a subject of considerable interest. Studies have shown that probiotics may help improve IBS symptoms and may also reduce the number of intestinal pathogens. Probiotics have been found to inhibit tumour necrosis factor a (TNFa) secretion and to improve epithelial barrier function. They also suppress local inflammatory response.
Several studies have reported significant improvements in IBS symptoms after taking probiotic supplements. These results have been analyzed using a random effects model to determine the clinically significant effects of probiotics. In most cases, the magnitude of the effect of probiotics was not as big as it could have been.
There is no consensus on the precise mechanism underlying the benefit of probiotics. However, some studies have reported improved bowel movements, bloating, abdominal pain and other symptoms.
Symptoms may arise from a change in the intestinal microbiome. Although this is not entirely understood, a recent meta-analysis suggests that regulating the microbial composition of the intestine by probiotics may be a promising treatment for IBS.
Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease which is associated with a high prevalence rate and a heavy economic and social burden. Several studies have been carried out to assess the effects of probiotics on the condition. However, the available evidence suggests that the use of these supplements is not proven for the treatment of eczema.
Although it is known that the gut microbiome plays an important role in atopic dermatitis, the effectiveness of probiotics to alleviate symptoms is not yet fully understood. In recent years, research points to disruption in the normal establishment of the microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis.
Probiotics may play a significant role in reestablishing a healthy intestinal environment. They may also contribute to a balance of immune responses. By regulating the metabolic activity of the host, probiotics contribute to a better nutritional status and to a healthier immune system.
Some studies showed that probiotics reduce the incidence of AD. However, they did not change the clinical severity of the condition.
Probiotics are an important component of current and future therapies for a number of gut-related disorders. They have the ability to improve intestinal motility, systemic immune responses and mitochondrial ETC complex integrity. A growing body of research has highlighted the potential clinical benefits of some probiotic strains.
The Drosophila model provides a good opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of different probiotic therapies in a toxicity or metabolic model. Probiotics are also capable of shifting the gut microbiome to a more beneficial state. It is believed that gut dysbiosis leads to an abnormal secretion of inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines are responsible for inflammation and can affect the permeability of the blood-brain barrier.
The toxicity model utilized an oral bacterial infection of Drosophila melanogaster. The drosophila was challenged with staphylococcus aureus lawns and hemolymph was taken. After a few days, the flies were subjected to an agar diffusion assay. Total colony counts were compared to standard curves of Colony Forming Units on MRS plates.
Fungicide-resistant C. difficile
Several studies have been done on the effectiveness of probiotics to treat gut related disorders. The results have shown that a short-term use of probiotics is safe and effective in patients. However, the effects of probiotics on long-term gastrointestinal diseases are not clear.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new technique for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). In a previous model, mice were challenged with C. diff and then colonized with fecal slurry. FMT has been shown to effectively clear C. diff and reestablish a microbial balance in the gut. A recent study has investigated the role of Candida albicans, a fungus found in both recipients and donors, in affecting the outcome of FMT.
In order to evaluate the impact of antibiotics on the microbial balance in the gut, a taxonomical analysis was performed. The fungal community was examined through qPCR and LefSe analyses.
A sub-study was conducted to determine the effect of vancomycin and probiotics on the outcome of FMT. Twelve CDI patients with antibiotic exposure were studied. Compared to their healthy counterparts, these patients had significantly higher levels of C. albicans.