The recent increase in the number of viral diseases is troubling. Although the incidence of acute respiratory infections is low, the incidence is increasing among older people and children, which may be attributed to a decrease in immune and respiratory function. New antiviral-lead compounds may be discovered using natural products, but there are currently very few effective drugs to treat respiratory viral diseases. This is unfortunate, as natural products offer a massive opportunity for the development of new antiviral drugs.
Viruses are tiny infectious organisms made of genetic material and a protein coat. They cannot survive without a host cell and reproduce only when they attach to it. Once inside, viruses replicate by replicating themselves in the host cell and then releasing new viruses into the body. This cycle repeats itself until the infected cell dies and releases new viruses. In this way, many viruses are spread. This makes them an important source of infection and need to be dealt with promptly.
In addition to causing widespread harm, viruses can also lead to many different conditions. Many millions of people have died from the plague, a disease caused by the Yersinia pestis virus, and the Black Death, a deadly disease caused by a variety of viruses. More recently, viral infections have caused pandemics, such as the 1918-1919 Spanish flu epidemic, which killed up to 40 million people. In the 21st century, the epidemics of HIV/AIDS and Covid novel coronavirus are a continuing, deadly virus assault.
Although treatment for viral diseases depends on the type of virus, there is no cure for some types of infection. There are no antibiotics that will treat these diseases, and the best way to prevent them is to avoid contact with infected people and to protect yourself against mosquito bites. There are also a variety of supportive measures that can reduce the risk of spreading them. For example, vaccinating your pet will help prevent rabies and prevent your family from contracting it.
The symptoms of arboviral infections may vary, and some may be very mild. In others, severe infections may cause symptoms such as high fever, tremors, and seizures. In some rare cases, this illness can be fatal. Health care providers can diagnose arboviral infections by laboratory tests. If you’re not sure which type of virus is causing the symptoms, visit your doctor. It’s important to get checked by a physician for a correct diagnosis and treatment.
To prevent outbreaks of emerging and fatal viral diseases, research must focus on the host factors that make the virus susceptible to disease. Basic research must focus on virus-host interactions, pathogenic mechanisms, and the host immune response. Vaccines and antivirals must be developed based on the latest knowledge of the virus’s host and vector control. The ability to detect emerging fatal viral diseases is vital for the global health. This is important because it will give scientists more confidence that they can respond to emerging pandemics.